Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) - MS3 Naveen Kumar

Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)

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Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)

Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a systematic, proactive method for evaluating a process to identify where and how it might fail and to assess the relative impact of different failures, in order to identify the parts of the process that are most in need of change.

Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Used across many industries, FMEA is one of the best ways of analyzing potential reliability problems early in the development cycle, making it easier for manufacturers to take quick action and mitigate failure.

Failure Mode Effect Analysis
Failure Mode Effect Analysis Steps

Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) uses three criteria to assess a problem:

  1. The severity of the effect on the customer.
  2. How frequently the problem is likely to occur.
  3. How easily the problem can be detected.

Participants must set and agree on a ranking between 1 and 10 (1 = low, 10 = high) for the severity, occurrence and detection level for each of the failure modes. Although Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a qualitative process, it is important to use data (if available) to qualify the decisions the team makes regarding these ratings.

After ranking the severity, occurrence and detection levels for each failure mode, the team will be able to calculate a risk priority number (RPN).

The formula for the RPN is:

RPN = severity x occurrence x detection

Once all the failure modes have been assessed, the team should adjust the Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) to list failures in descending RPN (Risk Priority Number) order. This highlights the areas where corrective actions can be focused. If resources are limited, Team must set priorities on the biggest problems first.

There is no definitive RPN threshold to decide which areas should receive the most attention, this depends on many factors, including industry standards, legal or safety requirements, and quality control.

However, a starting point for prioritization is to apply the Pareto chart. Pareto rule says, typically 80 percent of issues are caused by only 20 percent of the potential problems. As a thumb rule, teams can focus their attention initially on the failures with these top 20 percent of the highest RPN scores.

Pareto Analysis | Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)

Pareto analysis is a formal technique, useful where many possible courses of action are competing for attention. In basic quality, the problem solver estimates the benefit delivered by each action, then select a number of most effective actions that deliver a total benefit reasonably close to maxim possible one.

Pareto analysis helps to identify the top portion of causes that need to be addressed first to resolve the majority of the problems. Once the major causes are identified, then tools like the Ishikawa diagram or Fish bone diagram can be used to identify the root causes of the problems.

While it is common to refer to pareto as “80/20” rule, under the assumption that, in all situations, 20% of causes determine 80% of problems.

Steps to identify the important causes using Pareto Chart

  1. Form a frequency of occurrences as a percentage.
  2. Arrange the rows in decreasing order of importance of the causes (i.e. the most important cause first).
  3. Add a cumulative percentage column to the table, then plot the information.
  4. Plot no 1: Curve with causes on x and cumulative percentage on y-axis.
  5. Plot no 2: Bar graph with causes on x and percent frequency on y-axis.
  6. Draw a horizontal dotted line at 80% from the y-axis to intersect the curve. Then draw a vertical dotted line from the point of intersection to the x-axis. The vertical dotted line separates the important causes (on the left) and trivial causes (on the right)
  7. Review the chart to ensure that causes for at least 80% of the problems are captured.
Failure Mode Effect Analysis
Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), Pareto Chart

Making Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Corrective Action

When the priorities of failure mode decided, one of the team’s last steps is to generate appropriate corrective actions for reducing the occurrence of failure modes, or at least for improving their detection.

The Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) leader should assign responsibility for these actions and set target completion dates.

Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)
Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)

 

FAQs:

Question: Pareto Cart works on which which principal ?

Answer: Pareto Chart works on 80/20 principal, that means 20% of causes determine 80% of problems.

Question: What are the three criteria for Failure Mode Effect Analysis?

Answer: The three criteria of Failure Mode Effect Analysis are:

  1. The severity of the effect on the customer.
  2. How frequently the problem is likely to occur.
  3. How easily the problem can be detected.

Question: What does Failure Mode Effect Analysis says ?

Answer: FMEA is one of the best ways of analyzing potential reliability problems early in the development cycle, making it easier for manufacturers to take quick action and mitigate failure.

 

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